The COVID Vaccine and Communities of Color
COVID is real. It is devastating.
This January, University of Maryland Medical System hosted a much-needed discussion about the pandemic, the vaccine and the effect on communities of color in order to offer hope and clarity.
Finding Hope: A Town Hall on Understanding the COVID-19 Vaccine.
Our speakers at this town hall on Dr. Martin Luther King Day informed our community about the harsh effects of this pandemic on our lives and livelihood and addressed questions and concerns about the vaccine, particularly for communities of color.
Finding Hope Town Hall: Questions and Answers
We received many questions from members of our community before and during the town hall. Those questions are answered below. Many people had questions about their personal health conditions and how those issues may affect whether they can get the vaccine. It is important to talk to your doctor about your personal health conditions before you get the vaccine.
Why are Black and African American people unequally impacted by COVID-19?
Black and African American people are almost 1.5 times more likely to get COVID-19. Those who get COVID-19 are nearly 4 times more likely to require hospitalization and nearly 3 times more likely to die.
There are some underlying health issues like heart and lung diseases, obesity, diabetes and hypertension that we know are linked to COVID-19 complications and even death. These health issues also affect Black people at a higher rate. We are also finding out that low vitamin D levels can play a role in how COVID-19 affects you.
There are many systemic health and social inequities that put these groups and other people of color at higher risk of getting COVID-19. Access to health care, education, occupation, income and housing are all factors that put people at increased risk for severe COVID-19 and death.
Why is the Latino community unequally impacted by COVID-19?
Latino and Latina people are almost twice as likely to get COVID-19, and those who are infected are more than 4 times more likely to need hospitalization and nearly 3 times more likely to die.
The chronic health conditions and socioeconomic factors that Black and African American people face are also issues for the Latino community. The language barrier is another issue. It is important to get information to people who do not speak English – whether that's native Spanish speakers or other groups. View our COVID – Español pages.
What other barriers exist in communities that are more impacted by COVID-19?
In addition to issues such as access to health care, education, income and housing, there are really basic communication barriers that we have to overcome. Not everyone has regular access to the internet, email or phone. It is important to get the message out to people in as many ways as possible and address concerns on the ground in our communities.
Discrimination is also an issue. Minorities more likely to receive lower-quality health care compared to their white counterparts. It's important that we are not only aware of these issues but are actively working to overcome them.
If Black and Latino populations are unequally impacted, why aren't they being given the vaccine first?
There are many sensitivities around asking communities of color to be vaccinated first. In no way do we want to give any weight to the incorrect belief that this vaccine is being used to experiment on anyone.
We are working to make sure we distribute the vaccine in the safest and fairest way we can. UMMS is following the State of Maryland's phased vaccine distribution plan to give the vaccine to people. These plans were created to make sure nobody cuts the line. We want the vaccine to be given to people as fairly as possible while supply is limited.
Are the COVID-19 being used to experiment on people of color?
No, there is no experimentation happening. This is a valid concern, and it is important to recognize why there is mistrust and hesitancy. Black and African American communities have suffered a long history of ethical violations and injustices. These injustices still affect health outcomes in some medical settings to this day.
But again, there is no experimentation happening. The COVID-19 vaccines were studied across diverse and high-risk populations, all of whom bravely volunteered to participate, and the safety and effectiveness have been proven.
Do the COVID-19 vaccines affect demographic groups differently?
Both Pfizer and Moderna required that the studies include volunteers who are high risk, have an underlying condition (like diabetes or obesity) or belong to specific racial and ethnic groups. Learn more about how the vaccines were tested.
In Phase 3 clinical trials, which is when we look at safety and how effective the vaccines are in a large group of people, here are some details.
- For Pfizer, out of more than 37,700 participants, 9 percent were Black or African American, 28 percent were Latino and 21 percent had at least one underlying health condition.
- For Moderna, out of the 30,000 participants, 20 percent were Latino, 10 percent were Black/African American and 25 percent were 65 or older.
While COVID-19 impacts different groups disproportionately, there was no difference in how effective the vaccines are across different demographics.
More COVID-19 Vaccine Questions
How do the current COVID-19 vaccines work?
Read about how vaccines, such as Pfizer and Moderna, that use mRNA technology work.
Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe?
Read about how the vaccines were tested and why they are safe.
Can I get COVID-19 from the vaccines?
How effective are the COVID-19 vaccines?
Why is there more than one vaccine? Are there any differences between them? Will I be able to choose which vaccine I get?
You will not be able to choose which vaccine you get. Read these vaccine comparisons to learn more details about the different vaccines.
What can I do to protect myself from COVID-19 while I wait to get the vaccine?
Learn more about the ways you can protect yourself and others from the virus.
How do I know when it is my turn to get the vaccine?
The State of Maryland is distributing the vaccine in phases. This plan was designed to be as fair as possible. Read more to find out who is eligible now to get the vaccine.
Where do I go to get my vaccine? How will I schedule my second shot?
Learn more about how to get the COVID vaccine from UMMS and other locations.
How much does the vaccine cost?
COVID-19 vaccines are free to all Americans. You can get the vaccine at no cost, whether you have insurance or not.
Do the COVID-19 vaccines protect against new strains of the virus?
The simple answer is yes. How (and how well) they work against new strains requires a more complex explanation. Learn more about the vaccines and new virus strains.
Is there anyone who cannot get the vaccine?
You should not get the Pfizer or the Moderna vaccine if you have had a severe allergic reaction to the first shot of either vaccine. Also, you should not get the vaccine if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in the vaccine. Please see the vaccine profiles for Moderna and Pfizer for details or to access their FDA fact sheets.
Should people who have a history of severe allergic reactions get the vaccine?
There is a very small chance that the Pfizer or the Moderna COVID-19 vaccines could cause a severe allergic reaction. If you have had a severe allergic reaction to another vaccine or injectable therapy in the past, you must talk to your doctor before you get the vaccine to make sure you can get the vaccine. You will not be able to get the vaccine if you do not talk to your doctor before your appointment.
For other allergies, you should talk to your primary care doctor before you get the vaccine to make sure it is safe for you to get the vaccine. If you have a history of allergies that require you to carry an EpiPen, you will be monitored for 30 minutes after getting your shot. Unlike the flu vaccine, the COVID-19 vaccines do not contain egg-based technology.
Can pregnant or breastfeeding women get the vaccine?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or plan to get pregnant, you should talk to your doctor before getting the vaccine. The safety trials for the vaccines did not include pregnant women.
For this reason, there is no information on how the vaccine affects an unborn baby. There is also no information on how mRNA vaccines affect babies who are breastfeeding or how they affect a nursing mother's milk production. We do know that the COVID-19 vaccines do not contain the COVID-19 virus, and experts do not think the vaccines are a risk to infants who are breastfed.
Should I get the vaccine if I am taking another medication like blood thinners or medicine to treat a heart condition?
Before you schedule your shot, it is important that you talk to your doctor to make sure it is safe for you to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Please talk to your doctor if you:
- Have a bleeding problem or you are taking a blood thinner.
- Have a weak immune system (your body doesn't fight infections well).
- Are taking medicines that affect your immune system.
Can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine if I have had another vaccine recently?
You should not get the COVID-19 vaccine within 14 days of getting another vaccine, like the flu or shingles. Please wait until 14 days after getting another vaccine to schedule your appointment or wait to get another vaccine until 14 days after getting your COVID-19 vaccine.
Can I still get the COVID-19 vaccine if I have had another treatment for COVID-19?
If you have gotten monoclonal antibody therapy or convalescent plasma for COVID-19, you should not get the vaccine for 90 days after getting that treatment.
What are the side effects of the vaccine?
Side effects are a sign that the vaccine is working. They are not uncommon. Most side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine are minor, like pain at the site of the shot. Other mild side effects could include fever, headache, chills and feeling tired. Side effects should go away within 24-48 hours.
And if you don't have any side effects, that doesn't mean the vaccine isn't working. Not everyone will have side effects.
How are vaccine side effects different from COVID-19 symptoms?
Vaccine side effects are nothing like what you might experience if you get COVID-19. COVID-19 symptoms include things like new loss of taste and smell, difficulty breathing, cough, fever, congestion or runny nose, diarrhea and nausea or vomiting. Remember, you cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccines.
Do I need to get the COVID-19 vaccine every year?
Right now, we do not know how long the COVID-19 vaccines protect you. We do not yet know whether you will need to get the vaccine every year.
Do I need to get both doses of the vaccine?
Yes, it's very important to get both doses of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines to be fully protected. You are fully protected two weeks after your second shot. Your first and second shot have to be the same vaccine. You cannot get a different vaccine once you get your first shot.
If I have had COVID-19, can I still get the vaccine?
If you have had COVID-19, you can still get the vaccine. We don't know how long the antibodies from a COVID-19 infection will protect you. The CDC says people who have had COVID-19 within the last 90 days may choose to wait to get vaccinated. This is so people who are more vulnerable can get the vaccine first.
What if I get COVID-19 between my first and second shots?
You cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccines. If you get infected with COVID-19 between your first and second shots, you may choose to delay the second shot for 90 days. But you need to make sure you get the second shot after the 90 days is over. You should not get your shot if you were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 10 days of your appointment. This is important so you do not give COVID-19 to others.
I'm thinking about waiting to get the vaccine. Why should I get the vaccine now instead of waiting?
The vaccine is the most important tool we have to fight the pandemic. If we want the pandemic to end, it is important for everyone to get the vaccine. For communities of color who are more likely to be hospitalized or die from COVID-19, it is especially important to get the vaccine.
After I get the vaccine, do I still need to wear a mask?
Even after getting the vaccine, it will still be important for everyone to wear masks, practice social distancing and stay away from gatherings – in public or in your home. This is because people who have gotten the vaccine may still be able to spread COVID-19 to others. You should get the vaccine to protect yourself from COVID-19. After you get the vaccine, you should continue to wear a mask and practice social distancing to protect others from getting COVID-19.
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